At Amazon Web Services (AWS), security is our top priority. Security is deeply embedded into our culture, processes, and systems; it permeates everything we do. What does this mean for you? We believe customers can benefit from learning more about what AWS is doing to prevent and mitigate customer-impacting security events.
Since late August 2023, AWS has detected and been protecting customer applications from a new type of distributed denial of service (DDoS) event. DDoS events attempt to disrupt the availability of a targeted system, such as a website or application, reducing the performance for legitimate users. Examples of DDoS events include HTTP request floods, reflection/amplification attacks, and packet floods. The DDoS events AWS detected were a type of HTTP/2 request flood, which occurs when a high volume of illegitimate web requests overwhelms a web server’s ability to respond to legitimate client requests.
Between August 28 and August 29, 2023, proactive monitoring by AWS detected an unusual spike in HTTP/2 requests to Amazon CloudFront, peaking at over 155 million requests per second (RPS). Within minutes, AWS determined the nature of this unusual activity and found that CloudFront had automatically mitigated a new type of HTTP request flood DDoS event, now called an HTTP/2 rapid reset attack. Over those two days, AWS observed and mitigated over a dozen HTTP/2 rapid reset events, and through the month of September, continued to see this new type of HTTP/2 request flood. AWS customers who had built DDoS-resilient architectures with services like Amazon CloudFront and AWS Shield were able to protect their applications’ availability.
Overview of HTTP/2 rapid reset attacks
HTTP/2 allows for multiple distinct logical connections to be multiplexed over a single HTTP session. This is a change from HTTP 1.x, in which each HTTP session was logically distinct. HTTP/2 rapid reset attacks consist of multiple HTTP/2 connections with requests and resets in rapid succession. For example, a series of requests for multiple streams will be transmitted followed up by a reset for each of those requests. The targeted system will parse and act upon each request, generating logs for a request that is then reset, or cancelled, by a client. The system performs work generating those logs even though it doesn’t have to send any data back to a client. A bad actor can abuse this process by issuing a massive volume of HTTP/2 requests, which can overwhelm the targeted system, such as a website or application.
Keep in mind that HTTP/2 rapid reset attacks are just a new type of HTTP request flood. To defend against these sorts of DDoS attacks, you can implement an architecture that helps you specifically detect unwanted requests as well as scale to absorb and block those malicious HTTP requests.
Building DDoS resilient architectures
As an AWS customer, you benefit from both the security built into the global cloud infrastructure of AWS as well as our commitment to continuously improve the security, efficiency, and resiliency of AWS services. For prescriptive guidance on how to improve DDoS resiliency, AWS has built tools such as the AWS Best Practices for DDoS Resiliency. It describes a DDoS-resilient reference architecture as a guide to help you protect your application’s availability. While several built-in forms of DDoS mitigation are included automatically with AWS services, your DDoS resilience can be improved by using an AWS architecture with specific services and by implementing additional best practices for each part of the network flow between users and your application.
For example, you can use AWS services that operate from edge locations, such as Amazon CloudFront, AWS Shield, Amazon Route 53, and Route 53 Application Recovery Controller to build comprehensive availability protection against known infrastructure layer attacks. These services can improve the DDoS resilience of your application when serving any type of application traffic from edge locations distributed around the world. Your application can be on-premises or in AWS when you use these AWS services to help you prevent unnecessary requests reaching your origin servers. As a best practice, you can run your applications on AWS to get the additional benefit of reducing the exposure of your application endpoints to DDoS attacks and to protect your application’s availability and optimize the performance of your application for legitimate users. You can use Amazon CloudFront (and its HTTP caching capability), AWS WAF, and Shield Advanced automatic application layer protection to help prevent unnecessary requests reaching your origin during application layer DDoS attacks.
Putting our knowledge to work for AWS customers
AWS remains vigilant, working to help prevent security issues from causing disruption to your business. We believe it’s important to share not only how our services are designed, but also how our engineers take deep, proactive ownership of every aspect of our services. As we work to defend our infrastructure and your data, we look for ways to help protect you automatically. Whenever possible, AWS Security and its systems disrupt threats where that action will be most impactful; often, this work happens largely behind the scenes. We work to mitigate threats by combining our global-scale threat intelligence and engineering expertise to help make our services more resilient against malicious activities. We’re constantly looking around corners to improve the efficiency and security of services including the protocols we use in our services, such as Amazon CloudFront, as well as AWS security tools like AWS WAF, AWS Shield, and Amazon Route 53 Resolver DNS Firewall.
In addition, our work extends security protections and improvements far beyond the bounds of AWS itself. AWS regularly works with the wider community, such as computer emergency response teams (CERT), internet service providers (ISP), domain registrars, or government agencies, so that they can help disrupt an identified threat. We also work closely with the security community, other cloud providers, content delivery networks (CDNs), and collaborating businesses around the world to isolate and take down threat actors. For example, in the first quarter of 2023, we stopped over 1.3 million botnet-driven DDoS attacks, and we traced back and worked with external parties to dismantle the sources of 230 thousand L7/HTTP DDoS attacks. The effectiveness of our mitigation strategies relies heavily on our ability to quickly capture, analyze, and act on threat intelligence. By taking these steps, AWS is going beyond just typical DDoS defense, and moving our protection beyond our borders. To learn more behind this effort, please read How AWS threat intelligence deters threat actors.
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