In this blog post, we’ll show you how to use Amazon Route 53 Resolver DNS Firewall to automatically respond to suspicious DNS queries that are detected by Amazon GuardDuty within your Amazon Web Services (AWS) environment.
The Security Pillar of the AWS Well-Architected Framework includes incident response, stating that your organization should implement mechanisms to automatically respond to and mitigate the potential impact of security issues. Automating incident response helps you scale your capabilities, rapidly reduce the scope of compromised resources, and reduce repetitive work by security teams.
Use cases for Route 53 Resolver DNS Firewall
Route 53 Resolver DNS Firewall is a managed firewall that you can use to block DNS queries that are made for known malicious domains and to allow queries for trusted domains. It provides more granular control over the DNS querying behavior of resources within your VPCs.
Let’s discuss two use cases for Route 53 Resolver DNS Firewall:
Use of allow lists – If you have stricter security requirements around network security controls and want to deny all outbound DNS queries for domains that don’t match those on your lists of approved domains (known as allow lists), you can create such rules. This is called a walled garden approach to DNS security. These allow lists only include the domains for which resources within your Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) are allowed to make DNS queries through Amazon-provided DNS. This helps to ensure that the DNS queries containing the domains that your organization doesn’t trust are blocked.
Use of deny lists – If your organization prefers to allow all outbound DNS lookups within your accounts by default and only requires the ability to block DNS queries for known malicious domains, you can use DNS Firewall to create deny lists, which include all the malicious domain names that your organization is aware of. DNS Firewall also provides AWS Managed Rules, giving you to the ability to configure protections against known DNS threats like command-and-control (C&C) bots. You can also add block lists from open-source third-party threat intelligence sources.
A few important points about the use of allow and deny lists:
- Broader use of allow lists is more effective at blocking a greater number of malicious DNS queries than a short deny list. For example, if your workloads only need access to .com domains, then allowing only .com will block many malicious domains that might be specific to certain countries. View a list of country code top-level domains (ccTLDs).
- If you use allow lists, you need to make sure that you keep up with the domains that your applications need to communicate with. Likewise, if you use deny lists, you need to keep up with updates to the lists.
- Allow lists and deny lists are not mutually exclusive models and can be used together. For example, let’s say that you have an allow list that only allows .com domains (with the intention of blocking several ccTLDs by default). You can also use the built-in AWS Managed Rules deny list to block known malicious .com domains for an additional layer of security.
Refer to the DNS Firewall documentation to familiarize yourself with its constructs and understand how it works. The automation example we provide in this blog post is focused on providing blocks or alerts for DNS queries with suspicious domain names. For example, consider the scenario where an Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instance queries a domain name that is associated with a known command-and-control server. As shown in Figure 1, when GuardDuty detects communication with the malicious domain, it initiates a series of steps. First, AWS Step Functions orchestrates the remediation response through a defined workflow, then DNS Firewall adds the suspicious domain to deny list or alert list, and finally GuardDuty notifies the security operators of the attempted communication.
In this solution, the detection of threats by GuardDuty triggers the automated remediation procedure documented in this post. GuardDuty informs you of the status of your AWS environment by producing security findings. Each GuardDuty finding has an assigned severity level and value that reflects the potential risk that the finding could have to your network as determined by our security engineers. The value of the severity can fall anywhere within the 0.1 to 8.9 range, with higher values indicating greater security risk. To help you determine a response to a potential security issue that is highlighted by a finding, GuardDuty breaks down this range into High, Medium, and Low severity levels. We have seen that many of the DNS-based GuardDuty findings fall into the category of High severity, and many times these findings are strongly indicative of potential compromise (for example, pre ransomware activity).
In this blog post, we specifically focus on the following types of GuardDuty findings:
We’ve configured DNS Firewall to block only events with High severity by sending only those domains to the deny list. DNS Firewall sends the rest of the domains to an alert list.
This solution uses Step Functions and AWS Lambda so that incident response steps run in the correct order. Step Functions also provides retry and error-handling logic. Lambda functions interact with networking services to block traffic, and with databases to store data about blocked domain lists and AWS Security Hub finding Amazon Resource Names (ARNs).
How it works
Figure 2 shows the automated remediation workflow in detail.
The solution is implemented as follows:
- GuardDuty detects communication attempts that include a suspicious domain. GuardDuty generates a finding, in JSON format, that includes details such as the EC2 instance ID involved (if applicable), account information, type of finding, domain, and other details. Following is a sample finding (some fields removed for brevity).
- Security Hub ingests the finding generated by GuardDuty and consolidates it with findings from other AWS security services. Security Hub also publishes the contents of the finding to the default bus in Amazon EventBridge. Following is a snippet from a sample event published to EventBridge.
- EventBridge has a rule with an event pattern that matches GuardDuty events that contain the malicious domain name. When an event matching the pattern is published on the default bus, EventBridge routes that event to the designated target, in this case a Step Functions state machine. Following is a snippet of AWS CloudFormation code that defines the EventBridge rule.
- The Step Functions state machine ingests the details of the Security Hub finding published in EventBridge and orchestrates the remediation response through a defined workflow. Figure 3 shows the state machine workflow.
- The first two steps in the state machine, getDomainFromDynamo and isDomainInDynamo, invoke the Lambda function CheckDomainInDynamoLambdaFunction that checks whether the flagged domain is already in the Amazon DynamoDB table. If the domain already exists in DynamoDB, then the workflow continues to check whether the domain is also in the domain list and adds it accordingly. If the domain is not in DynamoDB, then the workflow considers it a new addition and adds the domain to both domain lists, as well as the DynamoDB table.
- The next three steps in the state machine—getDomainFromDomainList, isDomainInDomainList, and addDomainToDnsFirewallDomainList—invoke a second Lambda function that checks and updates the DNS Firewall domain lists with the domain name. Figure 4 shows an example of the DNS Firewall rules and associated domain list.
Figure 5 shows the domain lists.
The next step in the state machine, updateDynamoDB, invokes a third Lambda function that updates the DynamoDB table with the domain that was just added to the domain list. Figure 6 shows an example domain entry that gets stored inside the DynamoDB table.
- The notifySuccess step of the state machine uses an Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) topic to send out a message that the automatic block or alert happened.
- If there was a failure in any of the previous steps, then the state machine runs the notifyFailure step. The state machine publishes a message on the SNS topic that the automated remediation workflow has failed to complete, and that manual intervention might be required.
Solution deployment and testing
To set up this solution, you’ll do the following steps:
- Verify prerequisites in your AWS account.
- Deploy the CloudFormation template.
- Create a test Security Hub event.
- Confirm the entry in the DNS Firewall rule group domain list.
- Confirm the SNS notification.
- Apply the rule group to your VPC by using DNS Firewall.
Step 1: Verify prerequisites in your AWS account
The sample solution we provide in this blog post requires that you activate both GuardDuty and Security Hub in your AWS account. If either of these services is not activated in your account, do the following:
Step 2: Deploy the CloudFormation template
For this next step, make sure that you deploy the template within the AWS account and the AWS Region where you want to monitor GuardDuty findings and block suspicious DNS activity. Depending on your architecture, you can deploy the solution one time centrally in a security account or deploy it repeatedly across multiple accounts.
To deploy the template
- Choose the Launch Stack button to launch a CloudFormation stack in your account:
Note: The stack will launch in the N. Virginia (us-east-1) Region. It takes approximately 15 minutes for the CloudFormation stack to complete. To deploy this solution into other AWS Regions, download the solution’s CloudFormation template and deploy it to the selected Region. Network Firewall isn’t currently available in all Regions. For more information about where it’s available, see the list of service endpoints.
- In the AWS CloudFormation console, select the Select Template form, and then choose Next.
- On the Specify Details page, provide the following input parameters. You can modify the default values to customize the solution for your environment.
- AdminEmail – The email address to receive notifications. This must be a valid email address. There is no default value.
- DnsFireWallAlertDomainListName – The name of the domain list for DNS Firewall that consists of domains that will be only alerted and not blocked. The default value is DemoAlertDomainListAutoUpdated.
- DnsFireWallBlockDomainListName – The name of the domain list for DNS Firewall that consists of domains that will be blocked. The default value is DemoBlockedDomainListAutoUpdated.
- DnsFirewallBlockAction – You can select NODATA or NXDOMAIN. NODATA implies that there is no response available if a DNS query from the VPC matches a domain in the block domain list. NXDOMAIN implies that the response is an error message, which indicates that a domain doesn’t exist. The default value is NODATA.
Figure 7 shows an example of the values entered in the Parameters screen.
- After you’ve entered values for all of the input parameters, choose Next.
- On the Options page, keep the defaults, and then choose Next.
- On the Review page, in the Capabilities section, select the check box next to I acknowledge that AWS CloudFormation might create IAM resources. Then choose Create. Figure 8 shows what the CloudFormation capabilities acknowledgement prompt looks like.
While the stack is being created, check the email inbox that corresponds to the value that you gave for the AdminEmail address parameter. Look for an email message with the subject “AWS Notification – Subscription Confirmation.” Choose the link to confirm the subscription to the SNS topic.
After the Status field for the CloudFormation stack changes to CREATE_COMPLETE, as shown in Figure 9, the solution is implemented and is ready for testing.
Step 3: Create a test Security Hub event
After the CloudFormation stack has completed deployment, you can test the functionality by creating a test event in the same format as would be published by Security Hub.
To create a test run of the solution
- In the AWS Management Console, choose Services, choose CloudFormation, and then for Stack, choose the stack name that you provided in Step 2: Deploy the CloudFormation template.
- In the Resources tab for the stack, look for the SecurityHubDnsFirewallStateMachine entry. It should appear as shown in Figure 10.
- Choose the link in the entry. You’ll be redirected to the Step Functions console, with the state machine already open. Choose Start execution.
- To facilitate testing, we’ve provided a test event file. On the Start execution page, in the Input section, paste the C&CActivity.B!DNS finding sample as shown in Figure 12.
- Note the domain name guarddutyc2activityb.com for the remote host identified in the GuardDuty finding in the test event on line 57 of the sample. The solution should block or alert traffic from that domain name in the following steps.
- Choose Start execution to begin the processing of the test event.
- You can now track the state machine processing of the test event. The processing should complete within a few seconds. You can select different steps in the visual Graph inspector to view input and output data. Figure 13 shows the input to the addDomainToDnsFirewallDomainList step that launches a Lambda function that interacts with DNS Firewall.
Step 4: Confirm the entry in the DNS Firewall rule group
Now that a test event was processed by the state machine, you can check whether the DNS Firewall rule group would block traffic to the domain name identified in the GuardDuty finding.
To validate entries in the DNS Firewall rule group
- In the AWS Management Console, choose Services, and then choose VPC. In the DNS Firewall section in the left navigation bar, choose DNS Firewall rule groups.
- Choose the demoDnsFirewallRuleGroup rule group created by the solution, and you’ll be able to see the rules as shown in Figure 14.
- Choose the domain list associated with the BLOCK rule. Confirm that the rules blocking the traffic from the source and to the domain that you specified in the test event were created. The domain list should look similar to what is shown in Figure 15.
Step 5: Confirm the SNS notification
In this step, you’ll view the SNS notification that was sent to the email address you set up.
To confirm the SNS notification
- Review the email inbox for the value that you provided for the AdminEmail parameter and look for a message with the subject line “AWS Notification Message.” The contents of the message from SNS should be similar to the following.
Step 6: Apply the rule group to your VPC by using DNS Firewall
As part of the CloudFormation template deployment, two test VPCs have been created for you, to demonstrate that you can assign a single DNS Firewall rule group to multiple VPCs. You can also associate this rule group to your existing VPC of interest. To learn how to do this task, see Managing associations between your VPC and Route 53 Resolver DNS Firewall rule group. For visibility into DNS queries and for debugging purposes, the template creates log groups that accumulate DNS Resolver query logs.
After you’ve successfully tested the given sample that emulates C&CActivity.B!DNS, you can repeat steps 3 to 6 for the MaliciousDomainRequest.Reputation finding sample and the DNSDataExfiltration finding sample.
These samples are supplied for your convenience, and you will see the blocking action in a matter of minutes. Alternatively, you can use other ways to test, which might need about an hour for blocking action to happen. To initiate DNS C&C activity, you can make a DNS request from your instance (using dig for Linux or nslookup for Windows) against the test domain guarddutyc2activityb.com. Alternatively, you can use GuardDuty Tester, which generates DNS C&C activity and DNS exfiltration unauthorized events.
To take this solution one step further, you can implement automatic aging out of the domains that get added to the domain list. One way to do this is to use the Time to Live feature in DynamoDB and keep repopulating the domain list from DynamoDB at regular intervals of time. The benefit of this is that if the malicious nature of a domain in the domain list changes over time, the list will be kept up to date during this age out and repopulation process.
There are a few considerations that you should keep in mind regarding DNS Firewall:
- DNS Firewall and AWS Network Firewall work together for improved domain-filtering capability across HTTP(S) traffic. A domain list that you configure in Network Firewall should reflect the domain list configured in DNS Firewall.
- DNS Firewall filters based on the domain name. It doesn’t translate that domain name to an IP address to be blocked.
- It’s a best practice to block outbound traffic to port 53 with network access control lists (network ACLs) or Network Firewall so that GuardDuty can monitor DNS queries.
- DNS Firewall filters DNS queries to the Amazon Route 53 Resolver (also known as AmazonProvidedDNS or VPC .2 Resolver) in the VPC. So for traffic leaving the VPC, we recommend that you use DNS Firewall along with Network Firewall, which you can use to secure traffic that isn’t headed to Amazon Route 53 Resolver. Network Firewall can also block domain names that exist in network traffic leaving the Amazon VPC, such as in HTTP HOST headers, TLS Server Name Indication (SNI) fields, and so on.
- You can use Network Firewall to block external encrypted DNS services so that these services can’t be used to circumvent your DNS Firewall policies.
In this blog post, you learned how to automatically block malicious domains by using Route 53 Resolver DNS Firewall and GuardDuty. You can use this sample solution to automatically block communication to suspicious hosts discovered by GuardDuty, and you can apply those blocks across all configured DNS Firewall firewalls within your account.
All of the code for this solution is available on GitHub. Feel free to play around with the code; we hope it helps you learn more about automated security remediation. You can adjust the code to better fit your unique environment or extend the code with additional steps.
If you have comments about this blog post, submit them in the Comments section below. If you have questions about using this solution, start a thread in the Route 53 Resolver forum or GuardDuty forums, or contact AWS Support.
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